All information Copyright, Cranfield University © 2017

Citation: To use information from this web resource in your work, please cite this as follows:
Cranfield University 2017. The Soils Guide. Available: www.landis.org.uk. Cranfield University, UK. Last accessed 21/10/2017

0711m SALOP

« 0220 SALINE 1 Associations Soilsguide Home 0572m SALWICK »

Soil and site characteristics

Slowly permeable seasonally waterlogged reddish fine loamy over clayey, fine loamy and clayey soils associated with fine loamy over clayey soils with slowly permeable subsoils and slight seasonal waterlogging.

Geology

Reddish till

Cropping and Land Use

Dairying on short term and permanent grassland, some cereals in drier districts.

Component soil series

Subgroup Series name Percentage WRB 2006 link
7.11 SALOP 35% Chromic Eutric Albic Luvic Stagnosols
7.11 CLIFTON 20% Chromic Eutric Albic Luvic Stagnosols
5.72 FLINT 15% Chromic Endostagnic Luvisols
7.12 CREWE 10% Clayic Chromic Eutric Stagnosols

Covers 3110 km2 in England and Wales

Soilscapes Classification

18
Slowly permeable seasonally wet slightly acid but base-rich loamy and clayey soils

Top

0711m SALOP

Detailed Description

This association consists mainly of stagnogley soils with slowly permeable subsoils in reddish drift mostly derived from Permo-Triassic rocks. There is a small proportion of stagnogleyic argillic brown earths. As there is little run-off on the level or gently sloping land these slowly permeable soils are seasonally waterlogged. The association occupies large areas in the Midlands and Northern England and occurs on the narrow coastal lowland of north Wales. The Salop series, fine loamy over clayey typical stagnogley soils, occupies one-third to two-thirds of the area. Clifton series, similar but fine loamy throughout, is generally a minor associate but in Cheshire covers about a quarter of the ground. Small patches of the clayey Crewe series, pelostagnogley soils, usually on level land, are included. Coarse loamy over clayey Rufford soils occur locally where there are glaciofluvial deposits nearby. Stagnogleyic brown earths belonging to Flint series mainly cover the steeper slopes.

The association is found mainly in the lowlands of Lancashire, Cheshire and north Shropshire where it is developed in Devensian drift. It is also extensive on the older Wolstonian tills in east Staffordshire, Derbyshire, Leicestershire and Warwickshire. A narrow belt occurs between Newport and Stafford and there is a south-westerly outlier in Worcestershire around Sherriff's Lench near Evesham. Crewe series is the most common subsidiary soil in Cheshire and Shropshire especially near the boundary with the Crewe association in nearby glaciolacustrine basins. In contrast, Crewe soils are rare in north-west Leicestershire. Clifton series is also commonly included in Cheshire while Oak profiles occur on the older tills particularly in Needwood Forest and around Coventry. Where the drift thins over Triassic mudstone along the Ridgeway in Worcestershire and in parts of Cheshire small patches of Brockhurst and Whimple soils are found. Rufford, Flint and Salwick series are minor inclusions throughout, Rufford soils being especially common bordering areas of sandy and coarse loamy soils in Lancashire, Cheshire and Shropshire. Similar soils derived mainly from greyish Carboniferous rocks, in particular the Dunkeswick series, are included in Derbyshire and Staffordshire. Along the north coast of Wales these soils are found where reddish Devensian drift is sufficiently thick to impede drainage. There is a small area at Beaumaris on Anglesey but the largest extent is in the Vale of Clwyd and along the border with Cheshire and Shropshire where rigg and furrow and water-filled marl pits are common features of the landscape. The proportion of Clifton and Salop soils is determined by the depth of fine loamy drift over the reddish clay. East of Wrexham there are fewer profiles of the Clifton series but Crewe replaces Salop series in the lowest and most level parts, probably in glaciolacustrine deposits. In the Vale of Clwyd and on Anglesey in particular, the proportion of Flint profiles is greater and Crewe soils are rare. Clifton profiles are most common at Hawarden where these soils adjoin the Clifton association to the north.

In Lincolnshire the association covers 131 kmĀ². There are small patches south and east of Gainsborough where the soils are in till derived from the Triassic beds which outcrop on the sides of the Trent valley. The main spread is along the eastern and southern margins of the Wolds with local extensions into the Fenland south of Spilsby. The till here contains chalk stones, and Elkington series occupies up to a third of the land. Small areas of Holderness soils are included near the eastern boundary. Where the till thins over chalk, Burlingham and Tathwell profiles are included.

At Moreton-in-Marsh the parent material is of glaciolacustrine origin, and is related to ice of eastern (Chalky Boulder Clay) provenance. The soils are usually stoneless at depth and Ashley soils, stagnogleyic argillic brown earths, are present where chalky drift is within moderate depth.

The association is extensive over the outcrop of Permo-Triassic rocks east of the Pennines from Harrogate northwards to Middlesborough, and skirting the North York Moors to the coast at Whitby. Other occurrences are in Furness and on the Solway plain, Cumbria, and near the Northumberland coast, where the drift is derived from Carboniferous rather than Permo-Triassic rocks. Clifton, Flint and Rufford soils are present throughout but Crewe series is only found in the east, usually on more level ground. Isolated patches of Salwick series are included. Reddish and non-reddish soils are frequently intermixed and the association also contains Dunkeswick profiles.

Soil Water Regime

Most of the soils when undrained are waterlogged for long periods in winter (Wetness Class IV). Surface waterlogging results from the combination of slowly permeable subsoil and slow surface run-off from relatively flat land. The soils can be improved to Wetness Class III with underdrainage especially in the drier eastern districts. Where the field capacity period exceeds 200 days, Salop, Clifton and Crewe soils remain severely waterlogged even with underdrainage (Wetness Class IV). Flint soils suffer some waterlogging in winter (Wetness Class III) but duration depends on climate and the efficiency of drainage measures. The soils are slightly droughty for most crops but moderately droughty for grass and non-droughty for spring barley.

Cropping and Land Use

These soils are traditionally used for grass production and form the basis of the dairy industry in Cheshire and Shropshire. The wet climate of Lancashire prevents regular cultivation but elsewhere cropping is mixed with a variety of cereals and fodder crops between leys. The land is generally difficult to work and timing of cultivations is critical especially on the wetter, heavier soils. With suitable underdrainage and regular subsoiling there are adequate machinery work days in the autumn on all except clayey Crewe soils but opportunities for spring cultivation are very limited and thus autumn sowing is preferable. Yields of autumn cereals achieved by direct drilling are comparable to those of conventionally sown crops provided the technique is used carefully, but there is some risk of surface ponding causing seed to rot especially on compacted soil. Grassland suitability varies with locality. In the west potential grass yields are large because drought seldom restricts growth, and there is a valuable autumn flush. However, grazing and silage production on wet soil lead to poaching and compaction with subsequent deterioration of grass growth and soil drainage. In the east, moisture stress restricts growth in mid and late season, and in most years there is no autumn flush although the longer grazing period compensates for this to some extent. Overall, winter wetness restricts grazing to summer as the soils are easily damaged by untimely stocking. Slurry is stored in winter because spreading is impracticable while the land is wet. Surface horizons tend to become acid despite calcium-rich subsoils and occasional liming is required.

Although Common oak and holly are the main woodland and hedgerow trees on these soils, most native trees thrive. The many marl pits support valuable base-rich wetland communities (Day et al. 1982) and older pastures, particularly if undrained, can develop a distinctive base-rich vegetation. In places the soils are abnormally corrosive and buried ironwork should be protected (Argent and Furness 1979).

Top

0711m SALOP

Typical Landscapes

Top

All information Copyright, Cranfield University © 2017

Citation: To use information from this web resource in your work, please cite this as follows:
Cranfield University 2017. The Soils Guide. Available: www.landis.org.uk. Cranfield University, UK. Last accessed 21/10/2017